This course is designed as one of the initial courses for those candidates with a concentration in Clinical Mental Health Counseling and in School Counseling. This course examines the history, philosophy, practices, and principles of the counseling profession, including the professional roles and functions and the application to various settings, populations, and problems. Topics include current issues and trends, advocacy, ethical and legal standards, professional organizations, credentialing, and technological advances in counseling. Reviews of the major affective, cognitive, and behavioral theories of counseling and psychotherapy, including historical foundations and applications are presented for discussion and understanding. The impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and Trauma is addressed in particular theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Current models of counseling are reviewed and students begin to develop a personal model of counseling.